Life in the Kawachinagano area began approximately 13,000 years ago during the Paleolithic Age (Post Stone Age). Around the area of Teragaike and Mikkaichi, tools from the Paleolithic Age as well as stone tools, and earthenware vessels from the Jomon period (8,000 BC―300 BC) are being discovered even today. Also, during the Yayoi period (300 BC―300 AD) in which cultivation began in Japan, small villages were built in the modern day areas of Kido, Daishi and Mikkaichi, which run along the Ishi River. In addition, during the Kofun Period, burial mounds were built in the town of Mikkaichi and on the tops of hills that looked down onto the small tributaries of the Ishi River. During the 7th Century, a large town was built around the Tako area. During this period as well, a system of law and regulations was developed in Japan, and this area (Tako) came to be called Nishikibe-gun. The origin of the name of Nishikibe-gun comes from the Nishikibe family, who came from Kudara (the southern area of modern day South Korea)
With the flourishing of Buddhism in Japan, and the construction of temples throughout the country, Kawachinagano was no exception. Kawaidera, Kanshinji, and Kongoji Temple were constructed in Kawachinagano. These temples began to flourish briskly during the Heian Period (794-1192) through the donation of vast land estates from the imperial court, former emperors, and samurai lords. Also, during the Northern and Southern Dynasty periods (14th century), Kanshinji and Kongoji Temple became associated with the Imperial Court and Kusunoki Masashige, a famous samurai warlord. Through these connections, Kanshinji and Kongoji Temple became a center of activity for some time during the Southern Dynasty period.
Due to its improvement during the Kamakura (1185-1333) and Muromachi (1338-1568) periods, one could find many villages alongside the Koya Highway. The Koya Highway was the main road to Koyasan (an area filled with key Buddhist temples.), and was frequented by many travelers
According to the Tenpo-gocho (a chronicle written by the Tokugawa shogunate), there were 37 villages located within the modern day area of Kawachinagano. These villages were divided and ruled by the Zeze, Kanbe, Sayama, Nishidai clans, other vassals, and the Tokogawa Shogunate.
From the beginning of the Meiji period (1868-1912), Kawachinagano was located in the Kawachi, Sakai, and Gojoh Prefectures, finally resting in Osaka Prefecture. In April 1889, cities, towns, and villages were officially classified by the Japanese government. Nagano and 7 other areas were proclaimed villages, and form what is today the foundation of Kawachinagano City. On April 1, 1910, Nagano village changed its status from village to town, and on June 1, 1940 Chiyoda and Amano Village combined with it. On April 1, 1954 Nagano Town and the villages of Mikkaichi, Tako, Kagata, Amami, and Kawakami, merged together and the city of Kawachinagano was born.